While there may eventually be an English-Maurang dictionary, the Maurang-English version, as exemplified by this lexicon, should be considered the defining edition in case of discrepencies.
(v) to grind up, pulverize
(adj) poor, unfortunate
Does not imply "poor" in the sense of lacking money.
(n) the rest, remainer, leftover bit
No definite article or similar determiner is needed with this word.
(v) to jump/dive (off of something) (v) to take off/take flight by running in a straight line off of something
The first meaning is the original one, which has existed at least since Early Maurang if not longer. The latter meaning arose by extension, since the first commonly-used flying machines in the Maurang-speaking world were gliders, with which one would take off by jumping from a cliff or other high point.
There may be dialects that have *arvcy'* for jumping off of something, but not for taking off in a glider from a cliff. The latter included the running start that you would expect the pilot to have to make, and wasn't perceived as momentane when the momentane suffix -y' was still productive.
(n) diver (one who jumps from a high place into water)
(n) joy, happiness
(pron) you (singular)
(v) to belch
(n) journey, trip
(n) bottom (of an object), underside
(v) to "swim" (as an octopus, usings its arms and not jetting) (v) to tread water (v) to wallow, roll around in the mud
(v) to find out, discover/learn (by chance)
From original *berw-* plus the inchoative suffix *-na*.
(v) to know (a fact)
There may have been a suffix *-ym* at one point.
(v) to pitch upwards/backwards (as a glider/plane would)
(v) to move through something
NOTE: this word doesn't really fit the satellite-framed paradigm. I may leave it as an exception, but most likely it will be repurposed to mean something else.
(v) to lay, sit (as in a sack)
(v) (definition currently unknown)
|(v)||to take off/lift off (upwards from a flat surface: what a bird,|
|helicopter, and *maybe* airplane does)|
Some dialects may lack the final <e>, but this is by far the most common form.
(v) to jump up (once)
(num) two (2)
(n) number, numerical value
NOTE: this probably needs to be defined more thoroughly?
NOTE: is this actually a prefix?
(n) nipple (regardless of sex of bearer)
(n) large rock, boulder
These are common enough where the Maurang live.
(v) to be strange (in a neutral way), atypical
(v) it seems
NOTE: this word would be ripe for transformation into an evidentiality marker of some sort.
(v) to sigh
(adv) always, at all times
(v) to send, cause to be conveyed
(n) restaurant (n) bar, tavern (n) galley (on a boat)
(v) to want, desire
Slightly weaker in general than the English translation would suggest. It also bears pointing out that, used in reference to a person, this verb does not carry the sexual connotations found in the literal English translation.
This verb also has somewhat strange *rektio*. The "subject" from an English-speaking perspective is placed in the Absolutive case, and the thing desired (if a noun and not a clause) ends up in the Genitive. However, if the object of this verb is a clause whose traditionally ergative subject is coindexed with the "subject" of *cyxle*, the subject of *cyxle* takes the Ergative.
(n) snack eaten in the afternoon, zvieri
(v) to bellow (v) to bark (of a dog or other canine)
(adj) sensitive, fragile
I feel like this originally meant something like "bleached", and then shifted due to that meaning being associated with being rendered fragile by nature/the sea/the sun.
(n) wagon, cart
(v) to sleep (v) to be dormant, latent (v) to be calm, regular, subdued (of ocean or weather)
(v) to decrease, abate, reduce
(prep) with (comitative)
(v) to sell, offer for sale
(n) ship, boat, watercraft
(n) idea, thought
(prep) (+ DAT) for (the purpose of)
(adv) on purpose, intentionally
(n) mast (on a ship, a straight up-and-down pole)
(v) to shade, put in shadow, cast a shadow on, block something's light (v, metaph) to shelter, protect, provide hospitality to
The first meaning is original, whereas the second is a metaphorical extension thereof. Maurang society attaches great significance to caves, probably due to their value as shelters from the sun, and thus being in the shade or providing shade to another person became associated with hospitality.
(v) to be dressed (in: +OBL), to wear (+OBL)
Borrowed from Eketai *dogamot*.
(n) mound (geographical formation) (n) lump/bump on skin (e.g. a bug bite)
(v) to fight, quarrel, have a verbal altercation
(v) to hate, loathe, detest
This is probably the strongest term you can use to describe disliking something in modern Maurang. Use with care.
(v) to turn (to one side when moving in a straight line)
(n) heel (of foot), base of palm (of hand)
(adv) once upon a time
Traditionally, this is the first word of a Maurang fairy tale, usually followed immediately by an existential verb as in English.
(n) master/head of house/building/department (n) host (n) captain (of a ship)
An *eskew* generally is in charge of a place or vehicle, rather than a group of people per se. Whether they have power over *you* depends on whether you are in their domain, not whether or not you are officially their subordinate. It is also the word traditionally used for the captain of a ship, or for the owner of a property where guests (either paying or not) may be present, much like the English word "host" or the Russian "хозяин/хозяйка".
(v) to fall down from high up
(n) vampire, bloodsucker
It's not yet clear exactly what a *fejtavyk* looks like, or what their characteristic traits are, but they seem generally similar to vampires --- they feed on the blood and/or life force of humans, and there are some restrictions on where they can go (they can't enter a natural cave, for instance).
(v) to yaw (as a glider/plane)
(v) to be in a tailspin
From *fydh*, with the frequentative suffix *h_r*.
(n) thorn, prickle
(v) to appear, come into being
(v) to fall/sprawl flat on one's face, to "faceplant"
(v) to roll, tumble head over heels
From *gwaas* with old frequentative suffix *-h_r* or *-f_r* (see *raffer*).
(v) to hug, embrace, squeeze (as a gesture of affection/friendship)
(v) to fly under power
In modern Maurang, this verb usually describes a fixed-wing airplane, although it can be used for birds as well, often with a slightly archaic tone. Historically, it was also the general word used to describe a bird flying, but it gradually came to be supplanted by the verb *laamj*, until the advent of fixed-wing aircraft rescued it from obscurity.
(v) to eat
NOTE: this really needs some fleshing out. It's far too simple.
(v) to take off, take flight (as an airplane) (v, arch) to take off, take flight (as a bird, by flapping wings and jumping)
Probably from *hydhc* and an inchoative suffix *-na*, with sound changes indicating that the suffix was added a long time ago.
In Proto-Maurang, this verb is believed to have been the regular verb used to describe a bird or other flying creature taking flight. However, with the advent of gliders as a regular means of transport, the verb *byyrvce* began to supplant it, probably by analogy with *arevc*. The verb *hynnca* fell out of use in normal speech in the vast majority of dialects (although it was retained in a few set expressions and as an archaic term) until the invention of fixed-wing powered flight, at which point it was co-opted to describe the act of an airplane taking off.
(n) knuckle, joint (on finger or toe)
(v) to clear one's throat, cough
(n) tree (n) wood
(n) chief, host, boss, owner
Unlike *eskew*, this word generally describes someone who has power over a group of people, regardless of the building/ship/venue they are associated with.
(n) idiot, fool
A *jaal* is actually a specific kind of fool who's stupid in a specific kind of way, but it's not yet clear what that way is just yet. NOTE: work this out.
(n) a small glider for one person
(n) a smallish reptillian pest analogous to a rat
(pron) I, me
(n) average-sized wave that you would see washing up on the beach (name) Jer, a common individual name
The regular, everyday waves that you see washing up on the beach on the islands where the Maurang live are traditionally associated with consistency, regularity, and stable relationships (both between humans, and between humans and nature). They represent the most common type of good-but-not-exceptional weather that you would expect to see on a normal day, and that generalizes to the sort of polite-but-not-heroic behavior that you expect from your compatriots. A person named "Jer" probably got that name because they are a point of stability in a sometimes-chaotic world.
(n) psoriasis, irritated skin
(n) raven (or perhaps an analogous Maurang bird)
(v) to walk, go/come (on foot)
(n) hair (on a person's head) (n) thread (that you sew with)
(adv) to the (natural) end(point)
This adverb is used in lieu of any verb meaning "to finish".
(n) an animal equivalent to a dog
(n) sun (n) star (when classifying astronomical bodies)
From *k_r*, whose meaning is currently unknown, and the old root word *yp* "sun", which has either fallen out of use or shifted in meaning in modern Maurang.
This word would be used for "star" when referring to a star in an astronomical or space context, but not when referring to a star in the night sky (which could theoretically be something other than a regular star).
(n) a person of a particular rank in Maurang society
We don't have the social structure worked out well enough to know exactly what such a person would do, but that can come later NOTE.
(v) to love (intellectually)
NOTE: what does that actually mean?
(conj) but (conjoins clauses)
(n) house, dwelling, home (n) a small dwelling of a specific Maurang type (rare?)
NOTE: we need more info on what a *kjeswe* actually looks like, and what the traditional Maurang architecture would be based on. Most likely, this word will be extended to become the default term for "house" after contact with the Eketai, but it will occasionally be used to refer specifically to houses built in the traditional style.
(n) vertical tail fin (of fish) (n) flag, banner
(n) wind strong enough to propel a sailboat at a reasonable speed
(n) an ocean-going ship
This word usually evokes a ship large enough for a couple of dozen people to live on for a fairly long voyage, although the ship itself may not resemble traditional European ship designs from Earth. The Maurang are skilled ship-builders and have managed to construct fairly large ocean-going vessels using limited resources.
(prep) out (of), outside of
(n) rudder (of boat), steering oar (n, arch) a type of long oar typically used as a steering oar
Is this at all related to *kwaj*? Perhaps because the rudder of a boat sticks out?
(n) steersman, helmsman, boatsteerer (n, modern) pilot (of a powered aircraft), helm officer (on a starship)
(v) to steer, pilot
(n) man, male adult
(n) to see, perceive visually
(n) goods (that a merchant might be carrying) (n, slang) stuff, junk
(v) to rub, caress, pet
(v) to be visible, appear, (+ *myth*) resemble
Pretty clearly related to *kweb* at some point, although the etymology is still a bit vague.
(v) to fly by flapping wings (also used for helicopters)
(n) hand (part of body)
Could this be related to the initial *laa-* in *laasjet*?
(n) coconut crab, or equivalent
This is not literally a coconut crab, but it is a similar species of large land crab that can be dangerous if you aren't careful.
(n) fore-and-aft sail, wing (of a *jakwe'*)
(v) to carve (a figure/piece of artwork/design)
The material that the resulting work is carved from is marked with the Genitive case. This is generally also how you would express "to carve something into a surface".
(n) tooth (human)
(n) a natural cave
There are a number of these on the islands that the Maurang inhabit. They have special significance in Maurang culture (for instance, a *fejtavyk* cannot enter one), and have historically been a major source of shelter, especially during inclement weather that might damage or destroy a *kjeswe*.
(n) digit (part of a written number)
This is an Eketai loanword, which has been Maurangized as much as is possible. The original Eketai word was *laseta*.
(v) to rule, govern, command
This word would *not* be used in the sense of giving a person a specific command. It implies having continuous power over them.
(adj) fat, thick
This word usually only describes people, and possibly personified animals. It would not normally be used for e.g. a farm animal or an animal that one was hunting.
(v) to thrive, be strong, have good fortune, succeed (continuously)
This word probably contains traces of an old reduplicative factitive.
(v) to climb
(prep) after (in time)
NOTE: this probably had spatial meaning once, but that meaning has largely been lost. Or possibly it was a verb meaning "happen".
(v) to carry on one's back, transport (as a pack animal does)
(v) to gather, bring together, come together
(n) pore (on skin)
(v) to know how to, have the skill to
This is basically the same as the Finnish verb *osata*. NOTE, however, that I'm not *entirely* sure that it's going to stay a verb. It may end up becoming a particle or affix.
(n) rudder, steering gear (of glider)
(n) edge, limit, border
(v) to please
The noun that would be the subject in English is in the Absolutive case, and that which would be the object is in the Dative.
(v) to fly, soar (what non-powered planes, soaring birds, and gliders do)
More specifically, this verb means "fly without power, using only gravity and air currents to stay aloft".
(v) to ignore, leave alone
(v) to write
NOTE: this word may ultimately be complex.
(n) thing, object, item (physical)
(n) stomach (internal organ)
NOTE: figure out figurative associations with the stomach.
(n) farm, garden (for growing food)
Traditionally, the Maurang got a large amount of their nutrition from hunting and gathering, but agriculture was also practiced. There was likely also a certain amount of aquaculture involved (there may be another word for an aquatic farm, or several depending on the types of creatures raised).
(n) egg (that a bird or reptile hatches from) (n, metaph) inception, early proto-form, beginning (of something)
(v) to feel happy, glad
(n) raft, float, floating platform
This word can refer to anything that floats, is large enough for a person to sit or stand on, and doesn't have a shape that's intentionally conducive to going in a particular direction the way a boat does.
(n) head (part of body)
(v) to be sick, ill
(v) to live, dwell, make one's home (at/in)
(n) worm (usually the sort you would find in fruit)
(n) leg (body part)
(prep) like, similar to, akin to
(v) to say (a word/utterance), state (a fact), tell (a bit about something)
This verb is not used for telling stories or giving longer explanations, for which there is a different verb. The main difference is the length and complexity of the narrative (for instance, you *mce'* the truth or a lie in Maurang, unless it is story-length).
(v) to bind, tie up
(v) to prepare (something) (v) to cook, prepare (food)
(num) one, 1
(n) woman, female adult
(v) to hope, wish
This word implies having a desire whose outcome you have no or minimal control over, regardless of whether the desired state or event would take place in the future or past.
(v) to increase (v) to grow in size, volume, effect
This verb, and many others like it, can take its Ergative argument optionally, meaning that it can correspond either to the intransitive or causative meaning of the verb "increase" in English.
(n) palm (of the hand)
(n) a person's "life force", responsible for their health and well being
*Myjek naryywy* = to be sick (with px on *naryyw*) *Ljewev naryywy* = to be healthy
(v) to advise, give a suggestion
(n) fingernail, toenail
(v) to exile, expell (a person), ostracize
Probably a compound at one point, although it's still not clear of what.
Possibly refers only to seawater, although it isn't clear yet.
(v) to be high tide
The *nys* element is easily recognizable as the word *nys*, meaning "water" or possibly "seawater" in modern Maurang. The *qa*, as you might expect, is again the original root referring to the tidal zone (*qaw*), with the final /w/ deleted, most likely due to interactions with the sounds that would eventually produce the final /jəp/.
(v) to answer, respond
(n) period of time, epoch, time
(n) plateau, mesa, flat area that's up high
(prep) near, close to, in the vicinity of
(n) peak (of a mountain), summit
(conj) so, therefore
(n) sea-going crab eaten by the Maurang
(n) small arboreal animal similar to a monkey
(prep) off, off of
(n) leaf (of a plant)
There aren't that many truly leafy plants where the Maurang live, but there are enough that they need a word for the concept.
(n) fish (with fins, that swims)
It's not clear whether there are whales on the Maurang homeworld, but if they are, they are probably considered a kind of *pyng*, despite being mammals.
(v) to fly through the air ballistically (as a stone or other projectile)
(n) A-frame style mast on a *vewwed*
(v) to live, be alive
(n) animal, (literally) living thing
(n,arch) heart (internal organ)
(v) to fear, be afraid of (+ GEN)
From original *qalc*, an old word for "heart", with the inchoative suffix *-na*, presumably as a reference to how one's heart tends to start beating faster when one is afraid.
|(n)||tidal zone (the part of a beach or shoreline that is underwater at high|
|tide, but exposed at low tide)|
From *qa(v)*, meaning basically the same thing as *qavelj*, followed by the suffix /-lʲ/ (a place associated with something). The proto-Maurang *qa(v)* dates back to an even earlier *qaw*, again with the same meaning.
In Maurang culture, the tidal zone is associated with danger, since it alternately floods and then dries up. You can venture there, but you have to be careful.
(adj) big, large, sizable (adj) (of something you would carry) unwieldy, awkward
(v) to freeze, become frozen, become ice
(v) to bounce around (v) to jump up and down over and over (archaic?)
From original *r_vˁ* and a frequentative suffix whose exact form is currently unknown (probably *-h_r* or *-f_r*). It is not clear what the motivation for the first vowel being /a/ is, but it could be due to influence from the original pharyngealized /vˁ/ moving to the vowel as the consonant assimilated to the first consonant of the suffix, perhaps aided by the fact that the vowel would be accented in that position and thus would want to be heavier. It may also simply be a holdover from an earlier state of the language that was reduced in other positions.
(v) to mar, mutilate, deface
(v) to mumble, speak too quietly to understand
(n) star (in the sky), heavenly body
NOTE: is this noun countable?
(name) Ryywym, a common individual name.
NOTE: there are nuances to this word; it is not the same as the other word for rope. They are still TBD though.
(n) family, crew
(v) to be low tide (v, metaph) to be temporarily safe
From the /qʷɨ(:)/ allomorph indicating the tidal zone (ultimately derived from earlier /qaw/), plus a prefix whose final consonant was presumably a labiodental fricative but otherwise remains undetermined, and a denominal verb-forming suffix /r/.
(n) traditional type of Maurang building, built of stone with a thatched roof
Since it requires more effort to build than a *kjeswe*, a *sem* is rarely the home of a single family or individual, but rather a communal building of some sort, often with multiple functions. There will frequently be more than one in a settlement, but usually not *that* many.
(adv) at the same time, simultaneously
(n) pot, large bowl, bucket, vessel
(n) skin (of a mammal)
(v) to strike, hit
(v) to communicate, convey (a message)
This comes from the name of an item in Maurang myth, which allowed the user to communicate telepathically (or something like that) with people who were far away. When telephones, or their equivalent on the world in question, arrive in the Maurang-speaking area, they were referred to using that word, which literally meant something like "communicator" or "conveyer of messager".
(n) a large land crab eaten by the Maurang
(v) to liberate, set free, release, loose
NOTE: this is probably complex, but I haven't worked out the morphemes yet.
(prep) on, on the surface of
This word is primarily used for the relationship between an object and a surface that it is sitting on due solely to the force of gravity. For e.g. a fly sitting on the wall or ceiling, a different expression would be prefered.
(n) arc, parabola
(prep) before (in time)
NOTE: I really don't know how Maurang adjectives work, and how common they actually are. This word may end up having to move to a different category.
(n) name (of a person, place, vehicle, etc)
(v) to pack (something into something), cram
The direct object is always the item that's getting packed or crammed into something else, not the container. Furthermore, this word generally implies that the container in question is or will end up rather full, and that force is required to get everything inside. It is not necessarily the word that you would use to describe packing for a trip, unless you have a lot of clothes and a fairly small suitcase.
(n) stone (general term)
(n) child, boy, girl
It is possible to distinguish genders of children, but it must be done through adjectives. Children are treated as genderless in Maurang society.
(n) track(s), footprint(s), trace
(v) to notice, have one's attention drawn to something
This verb has an argument structure that will seem a little bit bizarre to English speakers: the person doing the noticing is marked with the Absolutive, whereas the thing that they're noticing is marked with the Ergative.
(v) to ask
NOTE: Rektio? Is the ABS argument the question or the person asked?
(n) wing (of a bird) (n) blade (of a helicopter rotor or other aircraft propellor)
(v) to believe (a fact)
NOTE: we probably need more details here.
(interj) Hey! Hwæt! (used to get people's attention)
(v) to discuss, talk about
NOTE: what is the etymology of this word? We might be able to get an old (or modern) reciprocal suffix out of it.
(n) lagoon, lake, small sea (medium-sized body of water)
(v) to tiptoe, move/walk quietly
Obviously reduplicated, and probably an onomatopoeia of some sort.
(prep) away from, far away from, some distance from
(n) fur (on an animal), hair (on a human's body)
This word does *not* mean "pelt" in the sense of the skin of an animal, removed and treated, but with the fur still attached.
(v) to be present, manifest, be around
Does this cover the meaning of the English expression "hang around"?
(n) bat (animal)
(adj) mean, vicious, hostile, enemy (adj) dangerous to humans (of animals)
(adv) at night
|(n)||abnormally large wave, of the sort that you might see during a storm;|
|usually large enough to cause damage to stuff along the shore, but not|
|large enough to pose a threat to dwellings located as far inland as the|
|Maurang know they need to build.|
I suspect that *tcaakw* are associated with anger or misplaced enthusiasm, as waves tend to be used as a metaphor for human emotions. It is unlikely that anyone would use *tcaakw* as a name, although some people might choose it to project a sense of edginess. It may occasionally be used pejoratively towards people who act irresponsily due to uncontrolled anger.
(v) to go, come (in general)
(v) to sing
(v) to be in love (with: DAT)
(n) ocean, very large body of water that covers a large portion of the planet
NOTE: this is probably a compound, including a more neutral word for the ocean as seen from the Maurang archipelago, or something like that. It may have roots in old Maurang religious traditions.
(n) the ocean, the sea
This is essentially a proper noun, possibly referring to a deity as well as the ocean itself. It is probably also the root of the *tjesh-* in *tjeshastar*, and is likely a common expletive pronoun in weather expressions.
NOTE: again, what specifically does this mean? It probably isn't just directional, although it may be.
(n) an animal analogous to a horse
They probably didn't have these on the archipelago, hence this is probably a loan or a repurposed word from mythology.
(v) to pitch downwards/forwards (as an airplane or glider would)
(v) to surprise, startle
As is the trend in this language, you can use this verb with an Ergative subject and Absolutive object, or with a slightly different construction. There person who feels surprised or startled (and TODO there may be a better word for 'startle'?) is always in the Absolutive, but the other participant can be someone acting deliberately (Ergative), something inanimate (Genitive), or a subordinate clause (unmarked for case).
(n) heart (internal organ)
NOTE: figure out cultural associations with the heart.
(v) to declare, decree, "speak into being"
(n) road, street, path
(v) to flip, topple, roll, upset
(v) to buy
(n) merchant (buy-sell-er)
(n) black/grey sand (the usual kind) (n, metaph) something common and not particularly valuable (especially in expressions)
There will be a lot of expressions using this term, but I'm still working on what they are.
(n) harness (that you would put on a horse or horse-like creature)
(n) catamaran with a mast on each hull, and sail strung between
(n) whisker (on a cat, dog, etc.)
(adj) hungry (in the literal sense)
(v) to swim (fish and humans do this, octopodes do not)
(n) arm (body part)
(v) to tap, making a clicking sound
(n) foot (body part)
(v) to covet, desire/long for something you cannot have
(n) rope, line
NOTE: what's the difference between this as *saaqy*?
Probably cognate with both *dewy* 'finger' and the second part of *xaxyn* 'foot', although it's not entirely clear how that relationship works just yet.
The first part is probably related to the second part of *xaxyn* 'foot', and the final *-xw* to the ending of *laaxw* 'wrist', but the exact origin of these formants remains unclear.
(v) there is, there are (existential verb)
(prep) through, along
|(n)||trimaran with a fore-and-aft rigged mast on the middle hull, which is|
|generally larger and longer than the others.|
(v) to lift, raise (a cover) (v) (with refrigerator) to open
This word is used for opening refrigerators and similar small controlled-environment storage devices, due to the fact that such devices in the world that the Maurang inhabit generally have the shelves on a platform in the center that can be lifted up to get things out, and then pushed back down into the refrigeration unit.
(n) morning (n, arch) dawn, sunrise
From *yp* "sun", plus the incohative *-na-*, plus a nominalizing suffix *-s*.
|(n)||white/yellow sand (relatively rare on the Maurang archipelago, and thus|
|valued quite highly)|
|(n,||slang) money, dough, moolah|
It is possible that this word was originally a compound, although it's not clear what of just yet.
(prep) in, inside
NOTE: is this directional, or stative locative? Or what?
(n) claw, talon
(v) to pant, breathe hard
(prep) with, using (instrumental)
(v) to put, place (something somewhere) (v) to set down, cease to carry
(v) to steal