Valence Changing Operations

-ar- (-er-, -or-)

Causative. Allomorphs occur when added to a root ending in -y- (-er-) or -w- (-or-).


Instrumental applicative.

Aspectual (more or less)


Indicates that the action is repeated many times over a short period or all at once, and that each individual instance is (literally or metaphorically) tiny or insignificant.


Incohative/dynamic aspectual marker ('becomes X', 'begins to X')


Continuous aspect.


This is an augmentative of some sort.


Again, re-



Indicates that something was done maliciously (on verbs).



Indicates that the speaker is certain that what they say is true; 'certainly', 'surely', 'definitely'


Indicates uncertainty; 'maybe', 'perhaps'



To try (but not necessarily succeed)