Labial Labiodental Coronal Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
/p/ p /t/ t /k/ k /q/ q
/b/ b /d/ d /g/ g
/pʰ/ ph /tʰ/ th /kʰ/ kh /qʰ/ qh
/ts/ ts /tʃ/ c
/dz/ dz /dʒ/ j
/tsʰ/ tsh /tʃʰ/ ch
/f/ f /s/ s /ʃ/ sh /x/ x /h/ h
/v/ v /z/ z /ʒ/ zh /ɣ/ gh
/m/ m /n/ n /ŋ/ ng
/l°/ lh
/w/ w /l/ l /j/ y
/r°/ rh
/r/ r

Voicing and aspiration do not contrast in syllable codas; consonants in that position are usually written using voiced letters when word-final; otherwise they are written with voiced or unvoiced letters to match the voicing of the following segment.

TODO: that's not exactly right. Voicing and aspiration contrast in root-initial position and in initial consonants of certain prefixes that usually occur at the beginning of a word. There may be some relatively new derivational morphology that behaves like a root as well.

Syllable-final /q/ is generally realized as /ʔ/.


/i/ i /u/ u
/i:/ ii /u:/ uu
/ĩ:/ iinh /ũ:/ uunh
/e/ e /o/ o
/e:/ ee /o:/ oo
/ẽ:/ eenh /õ:/ oonh
/a/ a
/a:/ aa
/ã:/ aanh

There may be processes that nazalize short vowels, but they will become long in those circumstances.

A short vowel followed by /n/ is frequently pronounced as a short nasal vowel word-finally, although this pronunciation exists solely as an allophone of the corresponding /Vn/ sequence.


Syllables are CV(V)(C).

Roots are CV(V)(C)(C), although a final consonant cluster is usually simplified before a pause. The final C of a two-consonant cluster at the end of a root is more or less invariably /w/ or /j/, which derives from (and occasionally resurfaces as) original final /*u/ or /*i/.